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A 3,000-Year Record of Solar Activity

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A 3000 year "fully adjustment-free physical reconstruction" of sunspot number was published in the journal Astronomy and Astrophysics. This allowed the authors to study modes of solar activity. They conclude that the recent solar maximum (1950 to 2009) was "a rare or even unique event, in both magnitude and duration, in the past three millennia.".



Solar Irradiance Modulation of Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) Temperature Gradients

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This article presents empirical evidence for a direct relationship between total solar irradiance (TSI) and the Equator-to-Pole (Arctic) surface temperature gradient. The evidence suggests that a net increase in the TSI has caused an increase in both oceanic and atmospheric heat transport to the Arctic in the warm period since the 1970s, resulting in a reduced temperature gradient between the Equator and the Arctic.



Solar Forcing on Climate and Primary Productivity in the NE Pacific

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Dr. Tim Patterson of Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, found " that the 11-year solar cycle, amplified by cloud cover and upwelling changes, as well as ENSO, exert significant influence on marine primary productivity in the northeast Pacific." The 11-year solar sunspot cycle was "detected in an annual record of diatomaceous laminated sediments from anoxic Effingham Inlet, Vancouver Island, British Columbia." He concludes, "a decrease of 1.4 W/m2 in solar irradiance and 4% decline in solar ultraviolet radiation through a sunspot cycle is amplified by a positive feedback mechanism with low altitude cloud formation and the suppression of the AL [Aleutian Low] during spring."



Solar Forcing of North Atlantic Temperature 1000 Years

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A paper reconstructs climate and solar activity over the past 1000 years and finds tiny changes in solar activity "have a considerable impact on the ocean-atmospheric dynamics in the North Atlantic, with potential effects on regional climate." The authors find low solar activity is associated with an increase in atmospheric blocking events and "modifies the flow of the westerly winds. We conclude that this process could have contributed to the consecutive cold winters documented in Europe during the Little Ice Age."



Real risk of a Maunder Minimum 'Little Ice Age' says Leading Scientist

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Solar scientist Professor Lockwood of Reading University studied isotopes in ice cores and believes solar activity is now falling more rapidly than at any time in the last 10,000 years. He found 24 different occasions when the sun was in exactly the same state as it is now - and the present decline is faster than any of those 24. Lockwood says a repeat of the Dalton solar minimum is 'more likely than not' to happen over the next few decades, and a the risk of a new Maunder minimum is 25-30%. The Maunder minimum corresponds to the colder part of the Little Ice Age. He believes that we are already beginning to see a cooling climate - witness the colder winters and poor summers of recent years.



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