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Cause of Hiatus Found Deep in the Atlantic Ocean

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An important paper published in the journal 'Science' found that half of the warming during the last 3 decades of the 20th century was caused by a natural Atlantic Ocean cycle that kept more heat near the surface. The paper shows that the ocean cycle also drew heat into the deep Atlantic causing the 21st century pause in surface warming. The cycles are driven by salinity changes. The authors write "the current slowdown in global warming could last for another decade, or longer". The results implies that the earth is much less sensitive to greenhouse gas emissions than assumed in climate models. Judith Curry summaries and comments on the paper in this article.



El Nino Warming Reduces Climate Sensitivity

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Global average ocean temperature variations to 2,000 m depth during 1955 - 2011 are simulated with a 40 layer 1D forcing-feedback-mixing model. The model included ENSO-related changes in cloud cover preceding the temperature change. The time lag and amount of cloud changes were adjusted to make the best match to the ocean temperature and the CERES satellite observations. When the cloud effects of ENSO are included, the equilibrium climate sensitivity falls from 2.2 to 1.3 Celsius for double CO2, or a 41% reduction. The ENSO process causes clouds to change, causing a temperature change. Part of the 20th century warming was caused by ENSO activity.



Falling Ocean Heat Falsifies Global Warming Hypothesis

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Ocean heat content is a much more robust metric than surface air temperature for assessing global climate change because the ocean's heat capacity is greater than that of the atmosphere by many orders of magnitude. The data from 3000 world-wide ARGO buoys shows falling ocean heat content from 2003 to 2008 while climate models projected rising heat content.



Ocean Acidification Database - Results & Conclusions

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CO2Science.org maintains an extensive database of studies that record changes of life characteristics of marine organisms in response to various ocean pH levels. The maximum expected decline of ocean pH is 0.3 which is expected to occur about 2100 after which pH values start a slow recovery. The linear trend of all the data to 0.3 pH change is actually positive, indicating an overall beneficial response of the totality of the five major life characteristics of marine sea life to ocean acidification.



Pacific Decadal Oscillation and El Nino/La Nina Frequency

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This paper by Joe D'Aleo shows that most of the temperature changes over th last 100 years are related to a natural large scale cyclical climate flip-flop known now as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation.



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