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Examination of space-based bulk atmospheric temperatures used in climate research

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This paper examines four satellite datasets producing bulk tropospheric temperatures. The satellite results indicate a range of near-global (+0.07 to +0.13°C/decade) and tropical (+0.08 to +0.17°C/decade) trends for the period 1979–2016. The paper shows that microwave units on National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s satellites (NOAA-12 and −14, 1990–2001+) contain spurious warming, especially noticeable in three of the four satellite datasets. The UAH 6.0 dataset doesn't use those satellites so it is the most accurate. Comparisons with radiosonde datasets independently adjusted for inhomogeneities and Reanalyses suggest the actual tropical (20°S-20°N) trend is +0.10 ± 0.03°C/decade, which is only 37% of the average climate model trend.

Tracing Winter Temperatures Over the Last Two Millennia

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This paper presents a winter temperature reconstruction using fjord sediments from Sweden. The temperature was determined by using a temperature sensitive isotope in small, shallow water animals. The temperatures range from 2.7 to 7.8°C. The record shows high temperatures during the Roman Warm Period, variable during the Dark Ages, high temperatures during Medieval Warm Period, cooling with multi-decadal variability during the Little Ice Age, and warming during the 20th century. The late 20th century warming “does not stand out in the 2500-year perspective and is of the same magnitude as the Roman Warm Period and the Medieval Climate Anomaly.”

Climate Variability and Lake Ecosystem Responses in Norway During the Last Millennium

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Zawiska et al 2017 presents a temperature reconstruction for the last millennium from lake sediments in Eastern Norway. The results show that summer temperatures were 4 °C warmer during some centuries than other centuries over the last millennium. The authors write “The three minor cooling periods were reconstructed in the first half of the millennium: 1050–1150, 1270–1370, 1440–1470 CE, that coincide with solar activity minima: Oort, Wolf, and Spörer respectively. Furthermore, a two peaked cooling period in the second half of the millennium was identified that coincided with the [Little Ice Age] LIA. These changes co-occurred with the prevailing negative [North Atlantic Oscillation] NAO index. … Maunder solar minimum caused a very deep negative NAO index phase during the LIA.”

The nonexistence of the Tropical Hot Spot & Invalidity of the EPA's Endangerment Finding

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The US Environmental Protection Agency's CO2 Endangerment Finding was based soley on IPCC climate models that unanimously predict that greenhouse gas warming would cause a distinctive hot spot of faster rising temperatures over the tropics. This research paper has found that when 13 temperature datasets are adjusted to account for natural ENSO effects, the tropical hot spot definitely "does not exist in the real world", which invalidates the climate models and the endangerment finding. The analysis shows that the steadily rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations have had a statistically insignificant impact on 13 critically important temperature time series once the natural ENSO affects are removed. In fact, there is no ENSO-adjusted warming at all. These natural ENSO impacts involve both changes in solar activity and the 1977 Pacific Shift.

A Guide to Understanding Global Temperature Data - Dr. Roy Spencer

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Dr. Roy Spencer has written a 22-page booklet, “A Guide to Understanding Global Temperature Data,” published by the Texas Public Policy Foundation. The booklet covers some of the scientific research that demolish a number of fashionable beliefs on global warming/climate change. First and foremost is the fad seized upon by some politicians that global warming skeptics are funded, or paid-off, by Exxon or other oil companies, etc. The booklet answers 13 questions, including “Can global temperatures go up naturally, even without rising CO levels?” and “How are temperature data adjusted?” Spencer says “Natural fluctuations in the climate system can easily rival the human influence.” He says this can be due to indirect solar effects and chaotic changes in ocean circulation which have time scales of many centuries. The paper shows that the urban warming effect is largest at very low population densities. Spencer writes “…the rural stations have instead been adjusted to match the urban stations which then leads to a false global warming signal.” He writes about climate sensitivity to CO2, “A minority of climate scientists like me believe climate sensitivity could be 1 °C (1.8 °F) or less, due to negative feedbacks in the climate system.” Finally, “It should be clear that the science of global warming is far from settled.”

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